illustrated manual by Bob Borries : http://www.vo1t.com/Vo1tIllustrated.html
General Modular Technics[modifier]
Scales and Modes from Refund https://www.muffwiggler.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=114482 The bottom 2/3rds of each page is a repeating octave of the keyboard, think of the top row as the black keys, the bottom row as the white keys, then look at a keyboard and it should make sense.
The roman numerals are the 'scale degree' that each note takes up within the scale.
So if you you wanted to play the diatonic scale, in DORIAN mode (II/2nd degree of the diatonic scale) you could pick any diatonic scale key (so you know which notes to play) and then make all the phrases resolve/end on the II/2nd degree note within that scale.
also, the chords that are written for each scale degree are using the jazz standard system of chord notation, that's why there are triangles/degrees/pluses/minuses in the chord listings, it saves a lot of space.
Indian scales have a traditional drone chord, and also a few different notes that they emphasize or resolve on, called the Vadi (main resting notes) and Samvadi (secondary resting notes) they also have notes that are only played while ascending in pitch (arohana) and descending in pitch (avarohana) but there is rarely any instances where this is actually used.
I also included all the scale degrees for the pentatonic pelog scale since they're all derived from the same master scale anyway (obviously the listed version is a bastardised equal tempered version of pelog and not the legit microtonal traditional variations)